It was besieged by Richard and, after a sharp conflict, was captured.
giving it effective self-government, in the words of the charter, "for eternity".
South of the river there has also been expansion with new areas such as Edwalton and West Bridgford, adding to Nottingham's urban sprawl.
Although this growth slowed towards the end of the century, the modern pressures for more affordable and council housing is back on the political agenda and there is now pressure on the Green Belt which surrounds the city.
This accolade came just over a year after Nottingham was named as the UK's first City of Football.
The title reflects Nottingham's literary heritage, with Lord Byron, D. Lawrence and Alan Sillitoe having links to the city, as well as a strong contemporary literary community, a thriving publishing industry and a vibrant poetry scene.
A further boundary extension was granted in 1951 when Clifton and Wilford (south of the River Trent) were incorporated into the city.
Electric trams were introduced to the city in 1901; they served the city for 35 years until the trolleybus network was begun in 1927.
One of those highly impressed by Nottingham in the late 18th century was the German traveller C. Moritz, who wrote in 1782, "Of all the towns I have seen outside London, Nottingham is the loveliest and neatest.In modern Welsh it is known poetically as Y Ty Ogofog and Irish as Na Tithe Uaimh "The Cavey Dwelling".Nottingham Castle was constructed in 1068 on a sandstone outcrop by the River Leen.Defences, consisted initially of a ditch and bank in the early 12th century.The ditch was later widened, in the mid-13th century, and a stone wall built around much of the perimeter of the town.